Autonomous cars and vehicular networks. History. State of art. Research problems

Day - Time: 29 November 2016, h.11:00
Place: Area della Ricerca CNR di Pisa - Room: C-29
  • Peter Stanchev (Kettering University, Flint, MI, USA)

Fausto Rabitti


Autonomous cars, or cars that run without human control, have been developed over the past several decades, starting in 1977. Currently, we have autonomous cars still in experimental and development stage that have driven autonomously thousands of miles. According to World Health Organization, each year, approximately 1.2 million lives are lost due to traffic accidents worldwide, and around 50 million people suffer car accidents. Self-driving cars promise to reduce this number of deaths and injuries. Some autonomy system are already being used in the cars such as: Cruise Control, Anti-Lock Brakes. Some systems are just starting to be used: Stability and Traction Control, Pre-Accident Systems, Traffic Jam Assist, Self-Parking Systems. In 2016, car manufacturers will introduce new feature â?? wireless broadcast of vehicle operational data. This will be used both for vehicleâ??toâ??vehicle communications (V2V) as well as for vehicleâ??toâ??infrastructure communications (V2I). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) introduces J2735 standard, supports interoperability of vehicular applications by use of standardized messages. Autonomous cars uses equipment such as: Radar sensors, Cameras, Image-processing software, GPS Units, Accelerometer, Ultrasound Sensor, Wheel Sensor, Laser range Finder. The car will become a "networked computer on wheels". GM has been testing the technology with two different platforms, one being a mobile transponder about the size of a GPS unit while the other is a smartphone application that is tied to the vehicleâ??s display unit. Both platforms use Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) to transfer data between devices and has a communication range of about one-quarter of a mile.
Vehicle-to-infrastructure communications is the wireless exchange of critical safety and operational data between vehicles and highway infrastructure. The following research questions have to be answered by the V2I Communications: What safety applications are effective and have validated benefits?; What minimum infrastructure is needed for maximum benefit?; Can signal phase and timing, and mapping information be transmitted over a car network via a universal architecture?; What degree of market penetration is required for effectiveness?; Are there unique applications for specialty vehicles (transit bus, commercial vehicles, light rail, etc.)?
In the presentation I will present the history of the autonomous cars and explores different issues relevant to V2V, analyzing the research conducted so far, the technological solutions available for addressing the safety problems. The used communication technology is highlighted. Research problems and corresponding approaches are shown.